# Dividing Polynomials - Definition, Synthetic Division, Long Division, and Examples

Polynomials are mathematical expressions which comprises of one or several terms, all of which has a variable raised to a power. Dividing polynomials is a crucial working in algebra that includes working out the remainder and quotient as soon as one polynomial is divided by another. In this blog, we will examine the various techniques of dividing polynomials, including long division and synthetic division, and provide instances of how to apply them.

We will further discuss the significance of dividing polynomials and its applications in various fields of math.

## Significance of Dividing Polynomials

Dividing polynomials is an essential function in algebra that has many utilizations in many domains of math, involving calculus, number theory, and abstract algebra. It is utilized to work out a wide range of challenges, including finding the roots of polynomial equations, calculating limits of functions, and calculating differential equations.

In calculus, dividing polynomials is applied to figure out the derivative of a function, that is the rate of change of the function at any time. The quotient rule of differentiation consists of dividing two polynomials, that is utilized to figure out the derivative of a function which is the quotient of two polynomials.

In number theory, dividing polynomials is applied to study the characteristics of prime numbers and to factorize huge values into their prime factors. It is further applied to study algebraic structures such as fields and rings, that are fundamental concepts in abstract algebra.

In abstract algebra, dividing polynomials is used to specify polynomial rings, that are algebraic structures that generalize the arithmetic of polynomials. Polynomial rings are utilized in many domains of mathematics, involving algebraic number theory and algebraic geometry.

## Synthetic Division

Synthetic division is an approach of dividing polynomials that is applied to divide a polynomial by a linear factor of the form (x - c), at point which c is a constant. The method is on the basis of the fact that if f(x) is a polynomial of degree n, subsequently the division of f(x) by (x - c) gives a quotient polynomial of degree n-1 and a remainder of f(c).

The synthetic division algorithm consists of writing the coefficients of the polynomial in a row, applying the constant as the divisor, and performing a series of calculations to figure out the quotient and remainder. The result is a streamlined structure of the polynomial which is easier to function with.

## Long Division

Long division is an approach of dividing polynomials that is applied to divide a polynomial with any other polynomial. The approach is based on the reality that if f(x) is a polynomial of degree n, and g(x) is a polynomial of degree m, where m ≤ n, then the division of f(x) by g(x) offers uf a quotient polynomial of degree n-m and a remainder of degree m-1 or less.

The long division algorithm consists of dividing the highest degree term of the dividend by the highest degree term of the divisor, and further multiplying the result with the whole divisor. The answer is subtracted of the dividend to get the remainder. The process is repeated as far as the degree of the remainder is less compared to the degree of the divisor.

## Examples of Dividing Polynomials

Here are some examples of dividing polynomial expressions:

### Example 1: Synthetic Division

Let's assume we have to divide the polynomial f(x) = 3x^3 + 4x^2 - 5x + 2 by the linear factor (x - 1). We could utilize synthetic division to simplify the expression:

1 | 3 4 -5 2 | 3 7 2 |---------- 3 7 2 4

The result of the synthetic division is the quotient polynomial 3x^2 + 7x + 2 and the remainder 4. Thus, we can express f(x) as:

f(x) = (x - 1)(3x^2 + 7x + 2) + 4

### Example 2: Long Division

Example 2: Long Division

Let's say we have to divide the polynomial f(x) = 6x^4 - 5x^3 + 2x^2 + 9x + 3 by the polynomial g(x) = x^2 - 2x + 1. We can apply long division to simplify the expression:

First, we divide the highest degree term of the dividend with the highest degree term of the divisor to attain:

6x^2

Subsequently, we multiply the entire divisor by the quotient term, 6x^2, to attain:

6x^4 - 12x^3 + 6x^2

We subtract this from the dividend to obtain the new dividend:

6x^4 - 5x^3 + 2x^2 + 9x + 3 - (6x^4 - 12x^3 + 6x^2)

which simplifies to:

7x^3 - 4x^2 + 9x + 3

We recur the procedure, dividing the largest degree term of the new dividend, 7x^3, by the largest degree term of the divisor, x^2, to achieve:

7x

Then, we multiply the entire divisor with the quotient term, 7x, to get:

7x^3 - 14x^2 + 7x

We subtract this of the new dividend to achieve the new dividend:

7x^3 - 4x^2 + 9x + 3 - (7x^3 - 14x^2 + 7x)

that streamline to:

10x^2 + 2x + 3

We recur the procedure again, dividing the largest degree term of the new dividend, 10x^2, with the largest degree term of the divisor, x^2, to obtain:

10

Then, we multiply the total divisor by the quotient term, 10, to get:

10x^2 - 20x + 10

We subtract this of the new dividend to achieve the remainder:

10x^2 + 2x + 3 - (10x^2 - 20x + 10)

that simplifies to:

13x - 10

Thus, the answer of the long division is the quotient polynomial 6x^2 - 7x + 9 and the remainder 13x - 10. We can express f(x) as:

f(x) = (x^2 - 2x + 1)(6x^2 - 7x + 9) + (13x - 10)

## Conclusion

Ultimately, dividing polynomials is a crucial operation in algebra which has many uses in multiple domains of math. Comprehending the different approaches of dividing polynomials, such as long division and synthetic division, can guide them in solving complex challenges efficiently. Whether you're a student struggling to get a grasp algebra or a professional operating in a field which involves polynomial arithmetic, mastering the ideas of dividing polynomials is important.

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