# Roman Numbers - Rules, Chart | What Are Roman Numbers?

When you imagine numericals at present, the first thing that comes to mind is the decimal method we utilize regularly. This method, however, is not the single approach to represent numbers. There are several systems utilized by distinct cultures around the world that utilize all kinds of characters. Classified among many one of the method is Roman numbers.

Since ancient Rome, Roman numbers have been a method of expressing numbers using a mixture of characters from the Latin alphabet. It persisted throughout the Middle Ages and the modern day, to the point it is still educated in school, that is perhaps why you have come across this post.

Today, we are going to look at Roman numbers, definition, how they work, and how to convert Roman numerals to ordinary numbers.

## What Are Roman Numbers?

First, let's check a brief look at the past of Roman numbers. Roman numericals were initially used by the ancient Romans, as you may have guessed from the name. They were used in many aspects of the Roman world, consisting of trade, architecture, and even warfare.

Currently, its widespread use is primarily attributed to aesthetic reasons. You might have observed Roman numbers as hour marks on a clock, chapter numbers, page numbering, copyright dates, or in movie sequels (e.g., The Godfather Part III).

The Roman number approach consist of numbers utilizing a blend of letters from the Latin alphabet. Letters are combined to form groups that represent numbers. Seven alphabets, I, V, X, L, C, D, and M, symbolizes the numbers 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1000, individually. You can then mix these numbers to represent any value in the numerical system.

### Meaning of the Roman numerals

Even though the decimal system is founded on the concept of place value, Roman numbers are established on additive and subtractive principles. This states that a Roman number's numeric values are based on the sum of the values of its particular parts. Another major distinction is that the decimal approach is established on the number 10. In contrast, Roman numerals are founded on the numbers 1 (I), 5 (V) and 10 (X).

### Examples

Let's check out a few hands-on examples of Roman numerals.

The computer game street fighter IV was released in arcades way back in 2008. If we take a look at the number in the name, we see it consist of a V in it. This is due to the fact numerical 5 in Roman number is represented by the alphabet V. Preceded by it is an I, or 1. Thus, we comprehend that this is the 4th entry in the series utilizing the properties we will talk about further ahead.

The film Star Wars Episode VI was the last to enter the original trilogy. Observing the value portrayed, it comprises a V ensued by an I. Thus, we will include a 1 to the value of V, that is 5, comprehending this Star Wars movie is the 6th episode in the series.

## Roman Numerals Chart

To read Roman numbers, it is important to know the numeric value of all the characters. To help make this process easy, here is a chart with every Latin alphabets with assigned numeric values.

Decimal Number | Roman Numeral |

1 | I |

2 | II |

3 | III |

4 | IV |

5 | V |

6 | VI |

7 | VII |

8 | VIII |

9 | IX |

10 | X |

11 | XI |

12 | XII |

13 | XIII |

14 | XIV |

15 | XV |

16 | XVI |

17 | XVII |

18 | XVIII |

19 | XIX |

20 | XX |

21 | XXI |

22 | XXII |

23 | XXIII |

24 | XXIV |

25 | XXV |

26 | XXVI |

27 | XXVII |

28 | XXVIII |

29 | XXIX |

30 | XXX |

31 | XXXI |

32 | XXXII |

33 | XXXIII |

34 | XXXIV |

35 | XXXV |

36 | XXXVI |

37 | XXXVII |

38 | XXXVIII |

39 | XXXIX |

40 | XL |

41 | XLI |

42 | XLII |

43 | XLIII |

44 | XLIV |

45 | XLV |

46 | XLVI |

47 | XLVII |

48 | XLVIII |

49 | XLIX |

50 | L |

51 | LI |

52 | LII |

53 | LIII |

54 | LIV |

55 | LV |

56 | LVI |

57 | LVII |

58 | LVIII |

59 | LIX |

60 | LX |

61 | LXI |

62 | LXII |

63 | LXIII |

64 | LXIV |

65 | LXV |

66 | LXVI |

67 | LXVII |

68 | LXVIII |

69 | LXIX |

70 | LXX |

71 | LXXI |

72 | LXXII |

73 | LXXIII |

74 | LXXIV |

75 | LXXV |

76 | LXXVI |

77 | LXXVII |

78 | LXXVIII |

79 | LXXIX |

80 | LXXX |

81 | LXXXI |

82 | LXXXII |

83 | LXXXIII |

84 | LXXXIV |

85 | LXXXV |

86 | LXXXVI |

87 | LXXXVII |

88 | LXXXVIII |

89 | LXXXIX |

90 | XC |

91 | XCI |

92 | XCII |

93 | XCIII |

94 | XCIV |

95 | XCV |

96 | XCVI |

97 | XCVII |

98 | XCVIII |

99 | XCIX |

100 | C |

200 | CC |

300 | CCC |

400 | CD |

500 | D |

600 | DC |

700 | DCC |

800 | DCCC |

900 | CM |

1000 | M |

## How to Transform from Roman Numbers to Everyday Numbers

Since we have the convenient table of Roman numbers, we can utilize that data to change numericals back and forth quickly. Following these steps, you will change these values whenever you want.

### Steps to Transform Roman numerals to Regular Numericals

To convert Roman numbers to regular numbers, we will use the cumulative and subtractive principles we discussed.

Begin with the leftmost Roman numeral in the group.

If the Roman numeral to its right is lesser in value, then sum the two values.

If the Roman number to its right is greater in value, deduct the Roman numeral on the right out of the Roman numbers to its left.

All you must do now is replicate this process until you arrive at the end of the Roman number group.

Let's check out how you can transform Roman numbers with a some examples.

### Example 1

Consider the Roman numeral LXXVI.

Begin with the leftmost Roman number, which is L or 50.

The Roman numeral to its right is X or 10. Since 10 is lesser than 50, we sum the both values and get 60.

The Roman number to the right of X is X again. We sum 10 to 60 and find 70.

The Roman numeral to the right of X is V or 5. Since 5 is less than 70, we sum the both values and we find 75.

The Roman numeral to the right of V is I or 1. Because 1 is less than 75, we sum the both values and get 76.

We halt here at the end of the Roman numeral group. Hence, the Roman number LXXVI is equivalent to the regular number 76.

### Example 2

Study the Roman numeral MCMIII.

Begin with the leftmost Roman numeral, that is M or 1000.

The Roman number to its right is C or 100. Since 100 is less than 1000, and it is ensued by an M, this value refers to 900.

The Roman number to the right of M is I or 1. Considering 1 is less than 1900, we sum the both values and get 1901.

The Roman numeral to the right of I is I again. We sum 1 to 1901 and the result is 1902.

The Roman number to the right of I is I again. We sum 1 to 1902 and the answer is 1903.

Since we have reached the end of the Roman numeral group, we stop here with our result. Thus, the Roman numeral MCMIII is equal to the regular number 1903.

With this data and a some practice, you will convert Roman numbers to decimal numbers like a pro!

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